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国新办:加强和改进政府新闻发布 积极主动回应公众关切

2019-09-23 12:45 来源:人民经济网

  国新办:加强和改进政府新闻发布 积极主动回应公众关切

  TopcourtwantsproceduretoallotmoneysetforrestorationTheSupremePeoplesCourthascalledonthenationalenvironmentalandjudicialauthoritiestojointlysetupafundtomanage,useandsupervisemoneyconfiscatedbycourtsforenvironmentalrestoration."Thefundshouldclarifywhoisqualifiedtousethecompensation,howtouseitandwhoshouldsuperviseitsusetoensurethatthemoneydoesgotorepairingthepollutedenvironment,"WeiWenchao,deputychiefjudgeoftheenvironmentandecologydivisionoftheSupremePeoplesCourt,dcasesistorestoretheenvironmentassoonaspossible."Wehaveoftenpunishedbusinessesandcalculatedamountsofmoneytheyhavetopayincompensation,"hesaid."Butwearenotclearonwhoshouldmanageandusethemoneytoperformtherestorationafterwehanddownaverdict,astherehavebeennoguidelinesonthatsofar."Toensuretheenvironmentcanbequicklyrepaired,weshouldmakeclearhowthemoneyisspent,sosettingupthefundisanecessity,"logyandEnvironment,theSupremePeople,Chinahasmadeincreasingeffortsagainstpollutionandadoptedvariousmea,therevisedChineseEnvironmentalProtectionLawtookeffect,,apilotprogramallowingprosecutorstofi,prosecutorsalsogainedtheauthoritytoplayasupervisionalroleintheprotectionofpublicinterestbyundertakingsuchl,thepilotprogramwasexpandednationwideandofficiallywritsCourt,in2017,courtsthroughoutChinaheard21,241environmentalcriminalcases,207,552environmentalcivildisputesand134,791administrativelawsuits,with17,965peoplepunished-comparedwith20,394environmentalcriminalcase,90,769environmentalcivildisputesand35,,48public-interestlawsuitswerebroughtbyNGOs,andfromJuly1toDec31lastyear,257suchlitigationswerebroughtbyprosecutingauthorities.SeniorcitizenschatataretirementhomeinBeijing.[Photo/Xinhua]AdjustmentfundwillhelpequalizeprovincesabilitiestopayretireesThecentralgovernmentisadoptinganadjustmentfundsystemforthebasicpensioncoveringemployeesofenterprisestoaddressthedifferentsituationsamongpro,ChinasCabinet,saidonWednesdaythatthesystem,whichwillbeputinplaceonJuly1,willbebasedonthecurrentpensionsyssionfundpoolsandredistributeitlater,basedon90percentoftheanplanthatwillbuildasustainablebasicpensionsystem,,PremierLiKeqiangsaidinawritteninstructionthatcoordinatedeffortsshouldbemadetoensuretheraising,allocation,,($523billion),,,,butprovincialregionssawincreasingdisparityintheirinsurancefundsduetothedifferencesintheireconomicgrowthandratiosofworkerstoretirees,YouJun,vice-ministerofhumanresourcesandsocialsecurity,saidatapo,suchasBeijingandGuangdongprovince,butotherplaces,suchasLiaoningandHeilongjiangprovinces,havepensionfunddeficits,,anationaladjustmentwascalledfor,ndsmorethantheysubmittedtothecentralgovernment,soverallabilityforriskmanagementinpensions,,ensuringpunctualpaymentinfulltoretirees,,aprofessorofsocialsecurityatRenminUniversityofChina,saidthenewsystemwillhelpremoveinequitiesbyunifyingpensioninsurancearoundthecountry."Workersandenterpriseswillpayatthesameratioandsystematicunificationwillleadtoanequality,whichisthefirstandvitalsteptobuildanationallycoordinatedpensionsystem,"Zhengsaid.

EmployeesattachtheexhaustsystemforaVolkswagenAGPassatsaloonontheproductionlineinsidetheVWfactoryinEmden,Germany.[Photo/Agencies]Germanautomotiveworkersfacethethreatofmassivedislocationoverthenext12yearsastheindustrylurchesthroughatransitiontobattery-poweredcars,puttingatriskthousandsof,,anareawhereGermancarmaker,000oftheexisting210,000positionsworkingonenginesandtransmissionswillgoawayby2030-evenaselectrificationadds25,000positions,,conductedbyFraunhoferInstituteforIndustrialEngineering,alongwithapleaforemployersandgovernmenttoenactpoliciesthatwilllessentheblow."Thechallengeislarge,butcanbemasterediftherightframeworkconditionsarecreatednow,"IGMetallChairmanJoergHofmannsaidatapressbriefinginFrankfurt."Politiciansandcompaniesmustnowdevelopstrategiestoshapethistransformation."Manufacturershaveembarkedonfar-reachingoverhaulsandcos,whereVW,DaimlersMriesofbattery-poweredvehiclesarestillrelativelysmall,0,aquarterofcarswillbefullyelectric,withpluginhybridsaccountingfora15percentmarketshareand60percentbeingpowonsideringthetotal840,000workersinthecountrysautoindustry,thefallout"mightstillbesignificantforindividualmanufacturersorregions,"saidOliverRiedel,aFraunhoferdirector."ThetechnologyshiftmightmovesomejobsoutsideofGermany,"tsourceoflithium-ionbatterydemand,,500gigawatt-hoursayearby2030forelectriccarsandbuses,from44GWhlastyear,,theworldslargestautomaker,hasbeenreviewingoptionsforproducingcellsfornew-technologybatteriestotapintoamarketnowlargelycontrolledbyAsianmanufacturersSamsungSDICo,sContemporaryAmperexTechnologyCo,orCATL,hasembarkedonanaggressiveexpansionpushintheworldslargestautomarketandabroadthatunderscoresthesystemssstanceBosch,theworldsbiggestcar-partsmaker,decidedjustoverthreemonthsagoagainstsettingupitsownbattery-cellproduction,citinghugecostsofsome20billioneuros($23billion)togainafifthoftheglobalmarketandensuresufficientscale."Iseethejob-numbersdropasbeingmuchmoredrasticthandescribedinthestudy,"slargestsupplierofdiesel-enginesystems,andsome20,000GermanjobshingeonthetechnologythatscomeunderfireinthewakeofVWlikeSaarlandorBavariasFranconiadistrictthatwouldbeparticularlyhardhit,lderworkerswholeaveandretrainingemployeeswithITknowledgeassoftwareengineers,saidBerndOsterloh,thecarmaker,versusabout1,200componentsforcurrentconventionalengines,anditwilltakeaboutone-thirdlesstimetoassembleacarliketheVWGolf,Phototakenin1958shows5-year-oldXiJinping(L),hisyoungerbrotherandtheirfatherXiZhongxun.[Photo/]FatherinculcatedfrugalhabitsXiZhongxun,fatherofXiJinping,servedaschairmanoftheShaanxi-GansuBorderRegion,aCPCrevolutionarybaseofthe1930s,andwascalledbyChairmanMaoZedonga"leaderofthepeople."XiZhongxunlaterledGuangdonginitsimplementationofreformandopening-uppoliciesandintheconstructionofspecialeconomiczonesintheprovince."Dadleadsafrugallife,n,"Xisaidinalettertohisfatherin2001,whenhewasthegovernorofFujianprovinceandwasunabletoattendhisfathers88thbirthdaycelebrationduetoworkcommitments.

  ArobotplaysamusicalinstrumentatanationalrobotschampionshipcontestheldattheHarbinInstituteofTechnologyinJuly2014.[Photo/IC]WUHAN-Morethan5,000contestantsfromaroundtheworldwillassembleatthe2018WorldRobotContestFinalsnextmonthinWuhan,capitalofcentralChinasHubeiprovince,evelopmentzoneofWuhan,scontestsincludeabrain-computerinterface(BCI)controlledcontest,aCoexisting-Cooperative-Cognitive(Tri-Co)contest,anindustrialskillscontest,,secretary-generalofthecontest,thisyearscompetitionwillhavesever,thecontestsareanintegralpartoftheWorldRobotConference,sconferencewillbeheldinAugustinBeijing.LiZiyingworksonoldfurniturewithChaozhouwoodcarvingsinastudioattheGuangzhouAcademyofFineArts.[Photo/Xinhua]LiZiyingdipsacottonswabinaglassofwater,,,andLi,22,,inSouthChina(618-907),,6documentarymadebyStatebroadcasterChinaCentralTelevisionaboutthelifeandworkofrestorersinBeijingsPalaceMuseum."Whenpeopleknowwearerestoringancientartifacts,theirfirstresponseisalways,Thatscool.Butitsactuallyverytiringwork,":Usingultravioletlighttochecktheconditionoftheitems,clearingthesurfacewithspecialtools,gatheringdustandfallenparts,categorizingthem,repainting,,,butshes,woodfragments,cottonfromtheswabandeventheshellsofdeadinsectsonthecarvingsneedtobestoredandcategorizedforresearch."Eachpartofthecarvingscontainsinformation,"Lisaid."Wecannotmissanything."ThelongworkinghoursandmeticulousprocesshavenotscaredawayLiandhercolleagues,astheyhavegraduallydevelopedadifferentviewoftheancientwoodcarvings."NowwhenIseethecarvings,itslikeadoctorseeingapatient,"shesaid."Ifeeltheirpainandjustwanttofixthemasquicklyaspossible."Shehasbeenworkinginthestudioforayearandlovesherjob,withherskillsrecognizedbyteachers,whorecommendedherforaplaceatanartschoolinAvignon,France,"Ihopetomakeitmycareer,"

  Atechnicianinspectsthechargingpiles,orpowerports,inaparkinglotbeforetheyareputintooperation.[Photo/Xinhua]BEIJING-Thenewly-implementedsubsidypolicyfornewenergyvehicles(NEVs)willaidtheindustry,vehicleswithadrivingrangebelow150kilometerswillnotreceivesubsidies,vehicleswitha150kmto300kmdrivingrangewillreceiveminimalsubsidies,andthosewithover300kmwillreceivethemost,/weightrequirementsforreceivingsubsidieshavealsobeenincreasedfrom90wh/kgto105wh/kg."Thenewpolicyfeaturingenhancedenergydensityandbetterbatteryefficiencywillupgradetheindustryandboostitshigh-qualitydevelopment,"saidCuiDongshu,,ChinahasintensifiedeffortstoencouragetheuseofNEVstoeasepressureontheenvironmentbyofferingsubsidies,,thegovernmenthasreleasedstrictersubsidyrulestopressautomakersandbattsNEVsindustry,promptingaslargestNEVmarketforthreeconsecutiveyears,witharound777,estomakeup20percentoftheoverallautomarketby2025.ThelogoforDouyin,picturedonMay25,2018.[Photo/VCG]Chinasshort-videoplatformDouyinreleaseditsuservolumeforthefirsttimeonTuesday,withmorethaasdifferentfromthreemonthsago,whenareportissuedbytheinternetconsultancyAnalysysshowedthatDouyinsarchrivalKuaishouheldasafeleaduptoFebruarywith108milliondailyactiveusers,evenmorethanthecombinedvolumeoftheotherthreevideoapps—Douyin,sofficialWeChataccount,theplatformhasincreasedby80milliondailyactiveusersinthespanofthreemonths,sdailyuserpoolwentthroughasignificantexpansionfromlessthan40milliontonearly70millionduringtheSpringFestivalholiday,,seniordirectorwithDouyin,sayingthatduringSpringFestivalthemobilityofexistingusers,mainlyspreadamongfirstorsecond-tiercities,,Douyinhassinceexpandeditsreachtovariousothercategories,suchasgourmetfood,exercise,travelandculture,,morethan40percentoftheusersonDouyinareaged24-30,compared,Douyinhasalsoattractedmorethan500governmentbodiesandmediaorganizationstoopenanaccountonitsplatform,includingtheState-ownedAssetsS,,withAllWeatherTMTquotingdatafromtheshort-videoapplicationownedbyBeijingByteDanceTechnology,,founderandCEOofBytedance,saidinMar,anoverseasiterationofDouyin,,avideosocialnetworkpurchasedbyToutiaoinNovember,haveprovidedservicesinmorethan150countriesandregions,enjoyingthefastestgrowthintheworldamongmobileapps.

ZhangjiajieGrandCanyonGlassBridge.[Photo/ChinaNewsService](ECNS)-ZhangjiajieGrandCanyonGlassBridge,designedbyChinaRailwayMajorBridgeReconnaissanceDesignInstitute(BRDI),haswontheArthurGHaydenMedalinthe35thInternationalBridgeConference(IBC),thepre-eminentarenafortheworld,withsevenawardsinhonorofdistinguishedengineerswhohavengineeringdemonstratinginnovationinspecialusebridgessuchaspedestrian,people-mover,ornon-traditionalstructures,sHunanprovince,,,alsoresponsibleforthebridgesmaintenance,successfullysolvedthetechnicalchallengesincablesystemdesign,glassbridgesurfacestress,windresistance,human-inducedvibration,,BRDIschiefdesignerforthebridge,saidthebridgeusheredintheeraofcustomized,multifunctionalsuspensionstructuresinChina,XuGongyi,deputychiefengineerofBRDI,,erforover50bigbridgesinChina,winninganumberofdomesticandinternationalawards.

  Phototakenin1958shows5-year-oldXiJinping(L),hisyoungerbrotherandtheirfatherXiZhongxun.[Photo/]FatherinculcatedfrugalhabitsXiZhongxun,fatherofXiJinping,servedaschairmanoftheShaanxi-GansuBorderRegion,aCPCrevolutionarybaseofthe1930s,andwascalledbyChairmanMaoZedonga"leaderofthepeople."XiZhongxunlaterledGuangdonginitsimplementationofreformandopening-uppoliciesandintheconstructionofspecialeconomiczonesintheprovince."Dadleadsafrugallife,n,"Xisaidinalettertohisfatherin2001,whenhewasthegovernorofFujianprovinceandwasunabletoattendhisfathers88thbirthdaycelebrationduetoworkcommitments.

  Staffofa5Gtechnologycompanydemonstratelong-distanceassistedautonomousvehicledrivingtovisitorsattheBigDataExpoinGuiyang,Guizhouprovince,onMay26.[Photo/Xinhua]TheUniversityofBristolislookingforChinesepartnerstosetupjointprogramsforthefifth-generationofwirelessnetworkt,deanoftheFacultyofEngineeringattheuniversity,saidChinaisnowatthepinnacleinmanyareasof5G,activelyinvolvinginthe3rdGenerationPartnershipProjectprocess,todrivethe5Gresearchanddevelopment."WewouldliketorepeatsomeofourexperimentsfromBristolhereinChina,seekingtofindapartnercity,"Nixsaid."oredeveloped,moreappropriate,moreefficientservicesforthefuture."Accordingtohim,theuniversitywilllookateducationalandresearchcollaborations,nthenearfuture,asthesuperfastbroadbandinternetaccesstechn,higherreliabilityandlowerlatency(thatis,thegapbetweentransmissionandreception)canberealized,,hreeyears,andwideapplicationof5Gisconceivableinthenextfiveto10years."Themostimportantapplicationscenariosof5Gincludetransportationandhealthcare,"hesaid.",theacademicsneedtofullyopenupandbuildupthetrust."HughBrady,vice-chancellorandpresidentoftheUniversityofBristol,said,"AccordingtotheUNslatestreport,,withmanyofthoseinChina,andonlythroughstrongresearchcollaborationcanwemaketheurgentbreakthroughsweneed."Overthepastfiveyears,China,increasinglycrowdedenvironmentsandscarceresources."Effectivewirelesscommunicationswillbeessentialtodeliverthebestservicesforsocietyandbusinessinemergingsmartcities,"saidYiZhiling,chiefscionscompaniesincludingChinaMobileCommunicationsCorpandHuaweiTechnologiesCoLtdtojointlydevelopscalablesolu,theuniversityisdrivingreal-worldresearch-includingthecityofBristol-wide5Gtestbed-leadingtomajoradvancesans2018GlobalMobileAwards,Nixsaid.AglasscircularbridgeinFuxiShantouristattractionwillopenonJune16aftereightmonthsconstructioninXinmicity,CentralChinasHenanprovince,June12,2018.[Photo/VCG]WorldslongestglasscircularbridgeinFuxiShantouristattractionwillopentothepublicaftereightmonthsconstructioninXinmicity,CentralChinasHenanprovince,onJune16,"skywalk".Itis360metershigh,andextends30metersoutofthecliffthatisnearlyninemeterslongerthantheglassbridgeintheColoradoGrandCanyonintheUnitedStates,whichisclaimedtobethe"EighthWonderoftheWorld".

  TheskylineofShenzhen,SouthChinasGuangdongprovinceisseenonJuly22,2017.[Photo/VCG]ThesouthernmetropolisofShenzhenhasjoinedothercitiesinafiercecompetitiontoattracttalentbysimplifyingtheprocedureforuniversitygraduatestoobtainlocalhouseholdregistration,,graduateswillbeabletosubmitapplicationsonlinebyuploadingtheireducationcertificatesandpersonalinformationinsteadofgoingtohumanresourceofficesinperson,authenticityandapplicantsqualifications,,itygraduatesanddealwiththeirhukoumatters,enhancingworkefficiencyandincreasingShenzhensattractivenessfortalent,,slatestefforttoattrac,thecitysho,,morethanhalfofwhichwillbedesignatedfortalentedworkers,edforthehousingstartingthisyear,,theaveragepriceforanewhomeinMaywas54,111yuan($8,445)persquaremeter,downj,aresearcherattheGuangdongAcademyofSocialSciences,saidtheintroductionofthenewhukoupolicyisaneffectivewayforShenzhentoretainandattracttalent,giventhehighcostoflivinginthecity."Formanyfreshgraduates,theprimaryissueisthehukoubecausethedocumentiscloselyrelatedtotherightsandsocialservicestheycanenjoy-forexample,buyinghomesorgettingmedicaltreatment,",asenioratShenzhenUniversity,saidalthoughhukouisanimportantfactortoconsider,themainconcernw,includingBeijing,Shanghai,ChengduandXian,havealsoofferedpreferentialpoliciestowoograduates.

  (left)andaphotoofFuGuiat10postedbyhimselfonthesamesite.[]Iassumedtheavatarofatechnologyreporterthreeyearsago,whenGoogles"Dontbeevil",technologygiantsproductsandservicesareomnipresent,,like,say,Facebooksrecentdatabreachscandal,,asIdeepenedmyunderstandingofthetechindustry,Idiscernedthatforward-lookingcompaniesdon,theybelieveabetteroptionistomakeuseofcutting-edgetechnologieslikefacialr,itcouldbringabou,that:,orBabyComeHome,,whattooktheirreunionsolongwasthattheinformationtheypostedonlinewashugelydifferent,spostsaidhewasborninApril1986andwent"missing",,thefathersaidFuwasborninNovember1984andwentmissingin1990fromavillageinChongqing,about1,,againstallodds,A,thesystemcrunchedallthatdsjustoneexampleofhowfacialrecognitionisbeingusedacrossChispublicsecuritybureaus,moreandmorefamiliesthathadlostallhopeoffindingtheirlostlovedones,,000,usingfacialrecognitionandothertechnologies,officialshavehelpedabout95percentofsuchpeopletofindtheirlostorseparatedfamilymembersorreachtheirhometowns,,sperhapsneedlesstosaythen:ifproperlyusedandprivacyiswellprotected,newtechnologiescanmakeapositivedifferencetopeople,,some1,370seniorpeoplegomissingeverydayonaverage,accordingtoa2016rep,fromtechnologycompaniesstandpoint,,whichincludesthepublicsecuritybureaus,isnowoneprofitsApicturetakenonFeb6,2018showsapersonholdingavisualrepresentationofthedigitalcryptocurrencyBitcoin,atthe"BitcoinChange"shopintheIsraelicityofTelAviv.[Photo/VCG]Likeme,mypeerswhoattendeduniversityaround2010fondlyrememberRenren,,ifyouwereastudentinChinabutnotonRenren,youdidn..well,WeChat-shallwesay-stoleRenren,Renren,unfazedbyWeChatsdominance,,itiss,sharesofRenrensurged76percentto$,,inSeptember2017,ChinahadbannedinitialcoinofferingsorICOs,whichmeantanyICO-relatedactivity,eventhatwhichwasmaskedas"PE",,ithasbecomefashionabletopepperbusinessdiscussionsandmediareleaseswith"blockchain".Theotherday,Iheardsomeonesayingblockchaincanbeusedtosetupachickenfarm!There:"Decentralizationcloud-computingblockchainnetworkwithhighperformanceanddevelopmentstructure";and,"usingtraceabilitynatureofblockchaintoverifyartpiece".Somehow,laypersons,andgullible,recklessorgreedyinvestors,havecometoasssemboldeningfraudsterstobaitsuchunsuspectingpeoplewithso-calledblockchainprojects,whichareessentiallyPonzischemesbearingadifferentlabel."ItsaninsultforPonziifyousayICOislikePonzi,"saidZhuXiaohu,aseasonedinvestorwhohadboughtintoOfoandDidiinthepast."Apartfromcybercurrency,whatelsecanblockchaindoNinety-ninepercentoftheICOprojectsareabsolutefrauds."Yet,itisbelievedthatsomefundraisingactivitiesinthePEgarbarebeinglaunchedoverseasbysomeChinesecompanies,evitableAsDeloittereportedlatelastyear,92percentofso-calledblockchain-basedprojectshav,whoshallremainanonymoushere,bestsumsupthesituation.",,butallyouevergetisnothingbutaquietandnormallife."

  AMeituandeliverydriverpreparestohittheroadtodeliverameal.[Photo/VCG]Meituan,amajormealdeliverycompany,wascriticiz,amaninEastChinasJiangx,hefoundthataprovisionprohibited"carriersofviralhepatitis",sexperiencedrewattentionfromYiYouCharity,,thefounderofYiYouCharity,saidthatMeituansdescriptionofhepatitiscarriersisdiscriminatoryagainstpeod-relatedindustries,accordingtoa2016diseaselistissuedbytheformerNationalHealthandFamilyPlanningCommission(nowtheNationalHealthCommission).HBVisspreadthroughtheexchangeofbodilyfluids,suchascontaminatedblood,unprotectedsex,,,roughly10percentofthetotalpopulation,,thereissts180State-runcompaniespolledincludedHBVchecksintheirpre-employmentphysicalexaminations.

  Atechnicianinspectsthechargingpiles,orpowerports,inaparkinglotbeforetheyareputintooperation.[Photo/Xinhua]BEIJING-Thenewly-implementedsubsidypolicyfornewenergyvehicles(NEVs)willaidtheindustry,vehicleswithadrivingrangebelow150kilometerswillnotreceivesubsidies,vehicleswitha150kmto300kmdrivingrangewillreceiveminimalsubsidies,andthosewithover300kmwillreceivethemost,/weightrequirementsforreceivingsubsidieshavealsobeenincreasedfrom90wh/kgto105wh/kg."Thenewpolicyfeaturingenhancedenergydensityandbetterbatteryefficiencywillupgradetheindustryandboostitshigh-qualitydevelopment,"saidCuiDongshu,,ChinahasintensifiedeffortstoencouragetheuseofNEVstoeasepressureontheenvironmentbyofferingsubsidies,,thegovernmenthasreleasedstrictersubsidyrulestopressautomakersandbattsNEVsindustry,promptingaslargestNEVmarketforthreeconsecutiveyears,witharound777,estomakeup20percentoftheoverallautomarketby2025.

  CarsondisplayattheGeneralMotorsCorpworldheadquartersinDetroit.[Photo/Agencies]CHICAGO-AmericasGeneralMotorsandJapaneseHondawillworktogetherindevelopingad,thenext-generationbatterywilldeliver"higherenergydensity,smallerpackagingandfasterchargingcapabilities"forbothcompaniesfutureproducts,,thecompanieswillcollaboratebasedonGMsnextgenerationbatterysystemwiththeintentforHondatosourcethebatterymodulesfromGM."Thisnew,multiyearagreementwithHondafurtherdemonstratesGeneralMotorscapabilitytoinnovatetowardaprofitableelectricportfolio,"saidMarkReuss,GMsexecutivevicepresidentofglobalproductdevelopment,purchasingandsupplychain."GMsdecadesofelectrificationexperienceandstrategicEVinvestments,alongsideHondascommitmenttoadvancingmobility,willresultinbettersolutionsforourcustomersandprogressonourzeroemissionsvision,",chiefofficerforautomobileoperationsofHonda,said,"Inadditiontoourongoingjointdevelopmentandproductionoffuelcells,thisbatterycomponentcollaborationwillenableustotakeanewsteptowardtherealizationofasustainablesociety.""moreaffordablecommercialsolution"forfuelcellandhydrogenstoragesystems,saidthestatement.Phototakenin1958shows5-year-oldXiJinping(L),hisyoungerbrotherandtheirfatherXiZhongxun.[Photo/]FatherinculcatedfrugalhabitsXiZhongxun,fatherofXiJinping,servedaschairmanoftheShaanxi-GansuBorderRegion,aCPCrevolutionarybaseofthe1930s,andwascalledbyChairmanMaoZedonga"leaderofthepeople."XiZhongxunlaterledGuangdonginitsimplementationofreformandopening-uppoliciesandintheconstructionofspecialeconomiczonesintheprovince."Dadleadsafrugallife,n,"Xisaidinalettertohisfatherin2001,whenhewasthegovernorofFujianprovinceandwasunabletoattendhisfathers88thbirthdaycelebrationduetoworkcommitments.

  

  国新办:加强和改进政府新闻发布 积极主动回应公众关切

 
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外交部边海司副司长肖建国:菲律宾南海案仲裁庭是一幢应予拆除的“违法建筑”
  新华网 ( 2019-09-23 15:52:01 ) 来源: 国际先驱导报
 

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外媒刊载的海牙南海仲裁庭现场庭审图。

??? “当前南海形势整体稳定可控,各方都不愿看到南海局势紧张升级失控,中国和东盟正积极就‘一带一路’,《南海各方行为宣言》下的合作及‘准则’磋商进程保持着高频次的沟通。菲律宾南海仲裁案的最终裁决掀不起南海的大波澜,制造不出‘新现实’”

??? 《国际先驱导报》记者杨依军发自长春 “近来多数舆论猜测,(南海案)仲裁庭做出的最终裁决可能对中方不利,中国将面临较大压力。但我想强调的是,不论最终裁决结果如何,均不会影响中国的权利,也不能制造出任何新现实。”5月7日,在吉林大学举行的中国国际法学会2016年学术年会上,外交部边海司副司长肖建国如是回应外界关切。
  他表示,针对南海仲裁案,中国的立场可归纳为“四不”:不接受、不参与、不承认、不执行。“这‘四不’恰恰表明了中国是以实际行动来捍卫国际法,包括《公约》的权威性、整体性和有效性,是维护国际法治的正义之举。”
  会后,肖建国副司长接受了本报记者采访。

“南海仲裁庭从一开始就缺失成立的根基”

  《国际先驱导报》:2014年12月,中国政府发表了“关于菲律宾所提南海仲裁案管辖权问题的立场文件”,但是仲裁庭不接受立场文件,这说明了什么?
  肖建国:“仲裁”两字,本质含义即当事方意思自治,即自主选择解决争议的程序及方法。国家间的仲裁也是同理。抽掉了“意思自治”或国家同意,就抽掉了仲裁的骨髓和灵魂,就不成其为仲裁,而成为打压一国主权的工具。正如会上多位学者所说,菲提起仲裁是未经中方同意的违法行径,由此建立的仲裁庭从一开始就缺失成立的根基,恰如凭空建起的空中楼阁,对于这幢违法建筑,应予拆除,有关仲裁庭应予撤销。
  菲提请的每项诉求,都直接或间接关乎主权、涉及划界。菲律宾试图回避中菲争议的实质,将中菲之间争议进行拆解,通过偷换概念、颠倒逻辑关系等手法,抽取其中一些事项作为孤立的问题,将其包装成所谓的《联合国海洋法公约》条款解释和适用的争端,要求仲裁庭作出裁决。但这层表面的法律面纱掩盖不了领土主权和海洋划界问题的实质。仅依一般常识判断就会发现,仲裁庭无论对菲律宾的诉求作出怎样的判定或裁决,比如中国的南海断续线是否合法,南海地物是岛是礁等问题,都将直接关联到南海相关岛礁主权归属的判定,都将产生实际上海域划界的效果。主权或划界问题是绕不开、躲不过的,根据中国2006年的排除性声明,仲裁庭对本案明显不具管辖权。
  遗憾的是,仲裁庭却在去年做出了有管辖权的裁决,将中国作为事实上的本案当事一方,指出中国不出席仲裁程序不能剥夺仲裁庭的管辖权。但我想强调的是,仲裁庭自始缺乏依据《公约》组建的合法正当性,自始就缺失管辖权,那么请问,皮之不存,毛将焉附?另外,就仲裁庭的组成和程序而言,还涉嫌违背国际间仲裁的一般程序规则和实践,这方面已有很多学者提出。例如,由当时日本籍的国际海洋法法庭庭长任命仲裁员是否合适?仲裁庭在成立初期曾为避嫌而更换过仲裁员似乎已说明这一问题的敏感性。更为重要的是,中国政府自始就明确反对菲律宾提起本仲裁案, 自始就拒不接受且不参与本案任何仲裁进程,坚持声明中国政府发出的立场文件、递交常设仲裁院的有关信件等在任何意义上均不得被解释为中国参与本案仲裁程序,这已表明对仲裁庭的决绝反对。针对中方这一态度,仲裁庭应当在作出裁决前,审慎地查明对有关争端是否有管辖权,而且查明菲请求在事实上和法律上是否确有根据。但遗憾的是,仲裁员们似乎采取了极不严谨的态度,采取了偏袒菲方的政治立场,滥权扩权。中国不参与本案仲裁程序表面上不会剥夺仲裁庭对南海仲裁案的管辖权,但问题的实质是仲裁庭从一开始就根本不具有管辖权。

事实认定和法律推理错漏百出

  Q:仲裁庭对本案的审理还有哪些不公平、不公正的表现?
  A:从仲裁庭去年关于管辖权问题的裁决看,仲裁庭一味全盘接受菲律宾的非法无理主张,实际上已沦为菲方的代理人,完全偏离了第三方程序应有的公正立场与审慎品格。从目前态势看,仲裁庭这种基调将会持续下去,所以对其最后的裁决我们不能抱幻想。
  仲裁庭在事实认定和法律推理上存在大量漏洞和争议,仲裁庭未对事实和法律进行全面、仔细的审查,毫无客观、公正可言。例如,南沙群岛历来从政治、经济、历史和地理上被视为一个整体,并按照《公约》的规定中国享有南沙群岛的相关权利。然而,仲裁庭无视这一事实,无视中方立场,片面支持菲律宾对南沙群岛的“切割处理”,把中国驻守的岛礁从宏观地理背景中剥离,逐一认定岛礁的权利。但即使从切割角度看,太平岛根据《公约》的有关规定也完全享有法律上的全效力,即有200海里专属经济区,这是不容辩驳的事实,最近,台湾当局就此发表了强有力的资料。菲方在本案中聘请的澳大利亚水文专家几年前曾说,南沙至少有十几个可主张全效力的岛屿,但该专家在被菲雇用后却改变了自己的立场。又如,判定一个海洋地物是岛还是礁,抑或是低潮高地,这与主权和海域划界关系是密不可分的,但仲裁庭却违背一般法理和大量的判例实践,强行割裂它们之间的关系,在此方面,即使是仲裁庭荷兰籍仲裁员艾尔弗雷德·宋斯(Alfred Soons)在数年前也曾明确指出,岛礁可主张的海洋权利是划界不可分割的一部分。
  梳理一下仲裁庭在事实认定和法律推理上的做法,不难发现,仲裁庭均采用切割和碎片化的处理方式。如把争端涉及的政治层面与法律层面切割,把中国对南沙群岛的悠久历史脉络切断,把南沙群岛地理整体性切碎,把《公约》整体与个别条款割裂,证据缺失的碎片化和司法判例的碎片化等。这种“只见树木、不见森林”的做法极易造成不公,引发仲裁程序的严重缺陷。

个别《公约》非缔约国试图抹黑中国

  Q:有外国媒体评论说,中国不接受、不参与仲裁是“不遵守国际法”、“破坏基于规则的国际体系”的做法。
  A:个别域内外国家凭借西方话语权优势,别有用心地利用仲裁案推波助澜,抹黑中国,妖魔化中国。自该仲裁案一开始,国际上就一直存在着一些颠倒黑白的声音,支持菲律宾提起仲裁,要求中国接受仲裁和裁决等,否则就是“以大欺小”,“恃强凌弱”,“不遵守国际法”,“破坏法治”。特别是作为《公约》非缔约国的美国,以“国际法治”为由,自始支持与怂恿菲律宾单方面提起仲裁,并鼓动一些国家联手对华,甚至赤膊上阵海上秀肌肉。美国的强势介入使菲律宾有恃无恐。显然,美国选择性地忘记了自己以往多次以“人权”、“武力干涉”为由公然挑战国际秩序和国际法,以及不执行国际法院判决的不良记录!它有资格代表国际道德高地吗?有资格谈仲裁庭裁决的约束力吗?
  基于菲律宾提起仲裁违背国际法,仲裁庭缺失合法性、公正性,中国不接受、不参与仲裁,符合国际争端解决中的“国家同意”原则与通行做法,是为了有效维护中国作为主权国家和《公约》缔约国所享有的自主选择争端解决方式和程序的权利。中国不接受、不参与仲裁,是为了践行中菲共同作出的以谈判方式解决有关争端的郑重承诺,符合“约定必须遵守”这一国际法与国际关系中的核心原则,是遵信守诺的表现。中国不接受、不参与仲裁,是为了维护自身合法权益,捍卫中国对南海诸岛的领土主权和在南海的海洋权益。中国不接受、不参与仲裁,也是为了捍卫国际法,维护《公约》争端解决机制的有效性、严肃性和完整性。

“当前南海形势整体稳定可控”

  Q:如您所说,包括很多中国学者也认为,菲律宾单方面提起并执意推动仲裁案,是披着法律外衣的政治挑衅,有西方大国的背景。那么仲裁案的最终裁决会给南海局势带来怎样的影响?
  A:菲律宾强推仲裁造成了地区形势的紧张与问题的复杂化,特别是严重损害了中菲间的政治互信,使两国关系跌入波谷,同时破坏了中国与东盟国家落实《南海各方行为宣言》和磋商“南海行为准则”的良好氛围,损害了地区和平与安全。
  但是,“德不孤,必有邻”。目前,中国的不接受、不参与立场正在得到越来越多国家的理解与尊重,已有近20个国家表示明确支持,既包括东盟国家,也包括域外国家。这些国家普遍认为,应尊重各国根据国际法自主选择争端解决方式的权利,不赞成单方面强加于人的做法;应坚持由直接当事国通过对话协商解决领土和海洋权益争议,域外国家应发挥建设性作用,而不是相反。这种示范效应,随着仲裁进程的步步推进,随着菲律宾法律面纱被揭穿,相信会逐步放大。会有更多的国家看清这起仲裁案的本质,会有更多的国家了解、理解和支持中国的立场,并会有更多的国家持客观公正的态度。
  当前南海形势整体稳定可控,各方都不愿看到南海局势紧张升级失控,中国和东盟正积极就“一带一路”,《南海各方行为宣言》框架下的合作及“准则”磋商进程保持着高频次的沟通。菲律宾南海仲裁案的最终裁决掀不起南海的大波澜,制造不出“新现实”,菲律宾在仲裁案背后隐藏的企图不会得逞。不论其裁决如何,中国将继续坚持不接受、不承认的立场,坚定维护我国在南海的主权和海洋权益、维护南海地区的和平稳定,维护南海国际航道的自由、安全与畅通。

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